This midterm is open book (i.e., readings) and notes (lecture notes, etc.). The answers on this test must be your own work though. Point assignments roughly correspond to time allocations. There is a total of 60 points, although you have the full class period should you need it.
C/P: It is a physical (mechanical) implementation of computing.
P/C: It is the implementation of the physical world by computing.
L/P: It is the physical (chemical) implementation of life.
((L/P)[S/C])iÇ(S/C)jÇSk: Robots are physically implemented life with embedded computationally implemented mind (although it is okay to think of them otherwise as well, such as without the life aspect: P[S/C]) and agents are computationally implemented mind (although they also could be embedded in computing: C[S/C]). There are multiple of each type of entity interacting in general.
This is a layer of computing implemented by multiple interacting computers, and so could be grid computing, a distributed operating system or other such things.
This is a human interacting with a physical implementation of (at least some part) of life, and so, for example, could be a human controlling a prosthetic arm via a brain computer interface.
This is a lifelike intelligent robot, and so could be an android or other such entity.
Two obvious ones are brain prostheses and sensor networks (or, more broadly, ubiquitous computing). In the former, you have two major problems: (1) heat dissipation can damage the delicate brain tissues within which the prosthesis is embedded, so either very low power or some other means of dissipating the energy is required; and (2) it must be autonomously powered without requiring frequent surgeries to change batteries or a permanent external connection that would risk infection. In the latter, you have anything from tens to millions of devices, many of them inexpensive and wireless, but which must operate for years without human intervention.
One possible view is that, while mathematics clearly interacts with the other four domains – e.g., providing tools for modeling aspects of those domains – because it is passive (just a language for description), it doesnÕt actually behave and thus canÕt implement, interact or be embedded in the others, and thus is not a domain of the same kind as the others.
A second possible view is that mathematics can actually behave, when combined with appropriate equation solving and theorem proving methods, and so is a legitimate candidate as a fifth domain. In this sense, logic plus theorem proving (M) may be able to implement intelligent behavior (S), as pursued by the logicist paradigm in AI; and C can implement M as is done with everything from calculators to Mathematica to automated theorem provers. Where it would fit in a hierarchy of domains, if there really is a hierarchy, is as ambiguous as with C though.
A third possible view is that when equation solving and theorem proving methods are included as part of mathematics, M just becomes a subdomain of computing (C) instead of being an autonomous fifth domain. The rationale for this is that mathematics is just one special instance of the algorithmic manipulation of symbols – where certain formal properties govern the process – whereas computing is about investigating this in all of its aspects.
The point of this question was not that any one of these perspectives is necessarily right, but to get you to think about the relationship and to articulate your thoughts and arguments in a coherent fashion. My current intuition is that the second approach wonÕt hold up ultimately, but either the first or third could, depending on whether the processes are included in M.