Gerardine DeSanctis and Janet Fulk, Editors
Newbury Park, CA: Sage.



Gerardine DeSanctis and Janet Fulk




1. Articulation of Communication Technology and Organizational Form

Janet Fulk and Gerardine DeSanctis

2. In Search of a New Organizational Model: Lessons from the Field

Lynda Applegate

3. Communication Technology for Global Network Organizations

Peter Monge and Janet Fulk

4. The Role of IT in the Transformation of Work: A Comparison of Post-Industrial, Industrial, and Proto-Industrial Organization Susan J. Winter and S. Lynne Taylor



5. Shaping Electronic Communication: The Metastructuring Of Technology In The Context Of Use

Wanda J. Orlikowski, JoAnne Yates, Kazuo Okamura, and MasayoFujimoto

6. Incentives and Computing systems for Team-based Organizations: A Complementarity Perspective Anitesh Barua, C.-H. Sophie Lee, and Andrew B. Whinston


7. Communication across boundaries: Work, structure, and use of communication technologies in a large organization

Pamela Hinds and Sara Kiesler

8. Social Context And Interaction In Ongoing Computer-Supported Management Groups Michael H. Zack and James L. McKenney 9. Constructing the networked organization: Changing organizational forms and electronic communications

Martin Lea, Tim O'Shea, and P. Fung





10. Perspective Making And Perspective Taking In Communities Of Knowing

Richard J. Boland, Jr. and Ramkrishnan V. Tenkasi 11. Improving Interorganizational Effectiveness Through Voice Mail Facilitation Of Peer-To-

Peer Relationships

Mary R. Lind and Robert W. Zmud


12. Hardwiring Weak Ties: Interorganizational Computer-Mediated Communication,

Occupational Communities, and Organizational Change

Jeanne M. Pickering and John Leslie King


13. The Kindness of Strangers: Usefulness of Electronic Weak Ties for Technical Advice David Constant, Lee Sproull, and Sara Kiesler




14. The Dark Side Of New Organizational Forms

Bart Victor and Carroll Stephens


15. Organizational Challenges for the New Forms Marshall Scott Poole 16. The Virtual Organization: Tele-Access In Business And Industry William H. Dutton


Conclusion: Research Issues and Directions Gerardine DeSanctis and Janet Fulk




About the Editors


About the Contributors



About the Editors



Gerardine DeSanctis is Professor of Management at Duke University. She received her Ph.D. from Texas Tech University in 1982. Before joining the Duke faculty, she was Professor of Information and Decision Sciences at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests are in the general areas of electronic communication, distributed work arrangements, and management of information technology. Since 1990 she has been a Senior Editor for Organization Science. She has served as Senior Editor for Management Information Systems Quarterly and currently is a member of the editorial review board. She is on the advisory board for Information Systems Research.


Janet Fulk is Professor of Communications in the Annenberg School for Communication and Professor of Management and Organization in the Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California. She earned an M.B.A. and Ph.D. at Ohio State University.  Her publications have won several awards, including Organizations and Communication Technology (with Charles Steinfield) and Social Construction of Communication Technology (Academy of Management Journal).  She is a Fellow of the Academy of Management.Her research focuses on the interplay of communication technology and social systems.



About the Contributors



Lynda M. Applegate is a Professor at Harvard Business School. In addition to her faculty position, Lynda is also on the board of directors of MicroAge, Inc., and the strategic advisory boards for Mainspring Communications and the Alliance Analyst. She is also a member of the strategic advisory board for the U.S. GAO and was a member of a roundtable of advisors to President Clinton's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Lynda's research and recent publications focus on the impact of information technology on organizations and industries. She is the author of 2 books and over 25 articles on this subject. She is a Senior Editor for Management Information Systems Quarterly and an Associate Editor for the Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce


Anitesh Barua is an Associate Professor of Information Systems and Spurgeon Bell Fellow at the Graduate School of Business, the University of Texas at Austin. He received his Ph.D from Carnegie Mellon University in 1991. Research interests include the business value of IT and reengineering, team-based organizations, and electronic commerce. Over 25 of his papers have appeared (or scheduled) in journals and refereed conference proceedings including the Communications of the ACM, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Information Systems Research, Journal of MIS, MIS Quarterly, and Organization Science.


Richard J. Boland, Jr. joined Case Western Reserve University in 1989 after 13 years as Professor of Accounting at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. He has held visiting positions at Gothenburg University (Sweden), UCLA Graduate School of Management and Oxford University (United Kingdom). He teaches in the areas of system analysis, philosophy of science and research methods. His research interests include qualitative analysis of the design and use of information systems, and he is particularly interested in organization and human consequences of information technologies. Dr. Boland is the Editor-in-Chief of the research journal, Accounting, Management and Information Technologies (Elsevier Science).


David Constant is a partner in Process Inc, a firm providing consulting services in software process improvement. He holds degrees in Systems Design Engineering from the University of Waterloo (Canada) and in Organization Theory from Carnegie Mellon University. His industrial experience includes management consulting in information systems and software development in real-time communications systems. His research interests include information and communications technologies in organizations, group behaviour in organizations, and perceptions of ownership of information.


William H. Dutton is a Professor in the Annenberg School of Communications, University of Southern California. His publications appear in a variety of journals, including

Vol. 6 (Greenwish, CT: JAI Press). He has edited or co-edited several books related to computing and information systems, including Computers and Politics (with J. Danziger, R. Kling, and K. Kraemer, Columbia University Press, 1982), The Management of Information Systems (with K. Kraemer and A. Northrop, Columbia University Press, 1981), and Information and Communication Technologies Visions and Realities (Oxford University Press, 1996). His most recent book is Society on the Line (Oxford University Press).


Masayo Fujimoto currently works at the Sumitomo Marine Research Inst. Inc. (Japan) as a senior researcher. She does research and consulting for governmental organizations and companies. She has a Master's degree in Technology and Policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is pursuing her doctorate at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Her current interests are in technology innovation and diffusion in society, focusing especially on the technology developed by heterogeneous groups and organizations such as government, companies, and users (e.g., medical informatics, such as telemedicine and medical record systems, and electronic commerce technologies).


Dr. Patricia Fung is an honors graduate of Bristol Polytechnic (United Kingdom) where she studied Modern Languages. After following a conversion course in computing and studying for a Master of Science in Knowledge Based Systems at Sussex University, she undertook her doctoral studies at the Open University. Her doctoral studies centred on an investigation of the use of formal semantics in student modelling. She is currently a lecturer in Educational Technology at the Open University,with research interests in the introduction and use of computing technologies and electronic communications in learning environments.


Pamela Hinds works at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Palo Alto, California where she studies the relationship between people, groups, and technology. Her research interests include media effecs on cognitive processing and social perception, the effects of expertise on cognitive biases, and the relationship between social networks and the diffusion of innovation. Pamela received her Ph.D. in Organization Science and Management from Carnegie Mellon University.


Sara Kiesler is Professor of Social and Decision Sciences at CMU. She is the co-author of Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization (MIT Press), and editor of Culture of the Internet (Erlbaum). She has published more than 45 research papers on electronic

communication, and has served on five National Academy of Sciences panels concerned with technology. Recently she has been working with the HomeNet project, a longitudinal study of residential Internet use. She is also studying anthropomorphism of computer agents, and electronic support groups.


John Leslie King is Professor of Information and Computer Science and Management at the University of California-Irvine. His work focuses on the role of information technology in the social organization production, especially in highly institutionalized contexts. Current projects include a study of the evolution of cellular telephony standards in Europe, the use of computer-supported cooperative work technology in felony courts, and coordination without process integration in complex logistics systems. He has published in a variety of fields related to information technology and organizations, and he is currently Editor-in-Chief of Information Systems Research.


Martin Lea is Research Fellow in Psychology at the University of Manchester, England. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Lancaster. His main research interest since 1986 is in the social psychology and sociology of communication technologies. He recently held research fellowships in information technology from the UK Science and Engineering Research Council, and in cognitive science/human computer interaction from the UK Joint Research Council Initiative. His current work is focused on the implications of computer-mediated communication for social identifications and the self, personal relationships, intragroup behaviour and intergroup relations. In 1992 he edited the book, Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication (London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf).

C. Sophie Lee is an Assistant Professor of Information Systems at College of Management, University of Massachusetts at Boston. She received her MBA and Ph.D. in Information Systems from the University of Texas at Austin. Her research interests are in the area of complementarity of technology, incentive, and organizational design, including the business value of process-oriented technology, mass customization, and telecommuting. Her papers have appeared in Organization Science and Information Systems Research.


Mary R. Lind receive her Ph.D. in Business Administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1988. Prior to graduate school, she worked for ten years as a systems analyst in the management information systems field. She is Associate Professor of Management Information Systems in the School of Business and Economics at North Carolina A&T State University. Her current research interest are in the areas of innovation, computer mediated communication channels, and the impact of technology on firm performance and service quality. She has published in Organization Science, Management Science, Information Systems Research, Information and Management, IEEE Transactions in Engineering Management, the International Journal of Quality, Work Study, and Database.


James L. McKenney is Professor of Business Administration Emeritus at Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration. He served as Director of the Senior Management Program at Templeton College, Oxford from 1990 to 1997. He received his B.S. and M.S. from

Purdue University and his Ph.D. from UCLA. His research focuses on computer-mediated communication, knowledge-based systems, and the design and management of private communication systems. He is presently conducting a multiyear study of the impact of information technology on the grocery industry. His articles have appeared in many journals including the Harvard Business Review, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Management Science, and Organization Science. His most recent book is Waves of Change: Business Evolution through Technology, HBS Press, 1995.


Peter Monge is Professor of Communication at the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California. Previously, he was a member of the faculties at Michigan State University and San Jose State University and a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University. He has published Communicating and Organizing (with Vince Farace and Hamish Russell) and Multivariate Techniques in Human Communication Research (co-edited with Joe Cappella). His research on participative communication processes, organizational networks, collaborative information systems, and research methods has been published in numerous leading communication and organizational journals, handbooks, and book chapters. He served as editor of Communication Research from 1986 to 1993 and as editor for the Academic Press Series on Human Communication from 1980 -1988. He is currently president of the International Communication Association.


Kazuo Okamura received an M.S. in computer science from Kyoto University in Japan in 1981. He has worked as a visiting scientist at MIT's Center for Coordination Science, and is now a senior researcher at Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Japan. His research interests include group communication systems in multimedia interactive environments, and socio-clutural differences in the usage of communication technologies.


Wanda J. Orlikowski is Associate Professor of Information Technologies and Organization Studies at MIT's Sloan School of Management. Her research focuses on the ongoing interaction between information technologies and organizational elements such as structure, culture, communication, social cognition, and work practices. She received her Ph.D. in information systems from New York University. Most recently, she has been studying the implementation and use of groupware technologies in organizations. She is working with Professor JoAnne Yates, also of the Sloan School, to develop a genre perspective on the role and use of electronic communication technologies in organizations.


Tim O'Shea has a Mathematics and Experimental Psychology from the University of Sussex and a Ph.D in Computer Science from the University of Leeds (United Kingdom). He has carried out research on the educational applications of computers at the Universities of Texas at Austin and Edinburgh. He joined the Open University (United Kingdom) in 1978. He has published 9 books, more than 100 articles and 6 BBC programmes on information technology and education. His current research projects include work on portable computing in education, ordering effects in human learning and the design of interactive learning environments for hard mathematical and scientific concepts. The Open University awarded him a Personal Chair in Information Technology and Education in 1987 and in 1994 appointed him Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Quality Assurance and Research.


Jeanne M. Pickering is a research associate in information and computer science at the University of California, Irvine. She is studying software system requirements definition in the interactive game industry.


Marshall Scott Poole (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) is Professor of Speech-Communication at Texas A&M University. He has conducted research and published extensively on the topics of group and organizational communication, computer-mediated communication systems, conflict management, and organizational innovation. He has coauthored or edited four books including Communication and Group Decision-Making, Working Through Conflict, and Research on the Management of Innovation. He has published in a number of journals, including Management Science, MIS Quarterly, Human Communication Research, Academy of Management Journal, and Communication Monographs. He is currently a Senior Editor of Information Systems Research and Organization Science.


Lee Sproull is Professor of Management at Boston University. She has published extensively on topics related to electronic communication and the impacts of new media on individuals, groups, and organizations. Her publications appear in a variety of journals across the disciplines of psychology, sociology, management science, and education. In 1991 she published (with Sara Kiesler), Connections: New ways of working in the networked organization. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.



Carroll Stephens is Assistant Professor of Management at Virginia Tech, where she teaches organization theory, business ethics, and a seminar on critical theories of organization. Her research interests include economic sociology, neo-institutionalism, post-bureaucratic organization forms, and the effects of organizations upon macro-social structures. She focuses particularly on normative evaluation of the new organization forms and their social impact.


S. Lynne Taylor is Assistant Professor of History in the Deaprtment of History at the University of Waterloo, Canada. She holds a Ph.D. in History from the Univeristy of Michigan, an M.A. in History from the London School of Economics, and a B.A. in Business Administration from the Univeristy of Western Ontario, Canada. She researches the social history of Word War II and its immediate aftermath. Recent work as focused on black markets and the post-World War II refugee crisis.


Ramkrishnan V. Tenkasi is Assistant Research Professor with the School of Business Administration, University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from Case Western Reserve University in 1994. His research examines learning and sense-making in complex and nonroutine task environments such as new product development and organizational change. Recent publications have appeared in Organization Science, Employee Relations, and Advances in Interdisciplinary Study of Work Teams, Vol. 2.


Bart Victor is Professor at the Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Luzanne, Switzerland. He received his Ph.D. in organization theory from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and a B.A. in sociology from the University of California at Berkeley. His research interests focus on ethical climate in organizations and the applications of social psychological theory to problems in organization design. He is especially interested in the social implications of globalization. His work has been published in a number of journals including Organization Science, Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, and Academy of Management Review.


Susan J. Winter is a member of the faculty of Decision and Information Systems at Florida Atlantic University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in 1992 and was an Assistant Professor in the College of Business at the University of Victoria, Canada, prior to her move to Florida Atlantic. Her research focuses on the nonfunctional aspects of information technology and has included work on the role of technology in the organization of work, the symbolic nature of computer technology, and the evaluation of electronic meeting systems.


Andrew B. Whinston is the Hugh Roy Cullen Centennial Chair in Business Administration, Professor of Information Systems, Computer Science and Economics, Jon Newton Centennial IC2 Fellow, and Director of the Center for Information Systems Management at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the editor of Decision Support Systems and the Journal of Organizational Computing, and co-author or co-editor of 20 books including the "Frontiers of Electronic Commerce" (Addison-Wesley), and over 275 articles. His current research interests include economic issues in Electronic Commerce and the pricing of Internet services.


JoAnne Yates is Associate Professor of Managerial Communication and Information Studies at the Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her research, which includes both contemporary and historical studies, focuses on understanding how the use of communication and information within firms shapes and is shaped over time by its changing organizational, managerial, and technological contexts. Over the past several years she has worked jointly with Professor Wanda Orlikowski, also of the Sloan School, on studies using a genre perspective to illuminate the initial and on-going use of electronic communication technologies.


Michael H. Zack is an Associate Professor and the Joseph G. Riesman Research Professor in the College of Business Administration at Northeastern University. His research and teaching focus on managing information and information technology to enhance organizational performance. He has been a Research Fellow of the Lotus Institute since 1994 where he has studied the use of information technology to support teams and to codify and share organizational knowledge. He also has worked extensively in the areas of electronic commerce, information brokerage, and information products and services. His current research looks at the relationships among corporate strategy, information technology, and the creating, sharing and leveraging of knowledge within and among organizations.


Robert Zmud is Professor and Thomas L. Williams, Jr., Eminent Scholar in Management Information Systems in the Information and Management Science Department at the College of Business, Florida State University. His current research interests focus on the impact of information technology in facilitating a variety of organizational behaviors and on organizational efforts involved with planning, managing, and diffusing information technology. He currently is Editor-in-Chief of MIS Quarterly, serves on the editorial boards of Management Science, Information Systems Research, and Accounting, Management & Information Technology. He also is the Research Director for the Advanced Practices Council of the Society for Information Management, International.