Sites and articles listed here are not necessarily endorsed by the CMMR;
they are listed for informational purposes only. These resources are not
meant to be exhaustive, but rather a sampling of what is currently
available. Full text articles and resources are also provided along with a
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Fundamental Policy Documents -- A Basis for
"WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness." -- The
Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776.
ACLU of Northern California web effort on languge rights and language discrimination.
Covers such topics as: What is language discrimination ? Is language discrimination illegal?
Why is language discrimination illegal? When can an employer require an employee to speak
only English at work? When can an employer treat an employee differently because of his or
her accent? When can an employer treat an employee differently because he or she cannot
communicate well in English? What other types of language discrimination are prohibited
by law? What should you do if you think you may have been subjected to language
discrimination? Also includes section on Guidelines and Questions for Employers Considering
the Use of Workplace "Speak-English-Only" Rules.
The Arizona Supreme Court dealt a surprisingly strong blow to the English-only movement
by throwing out Art. XXVIII of that state's constitution, passed by the voters back in 1988.
In a unanimous decision, the court ruled that the measure unreasonably restricts access to
government for language-minority groups, in violation of the First and Fourteenth
amendments to the U.S. constitution. The text of the decision can be read (with Adobe
Acrobat) on the court's web site.
NOTE: To read this article you will need a PDF reader like Adobe Acrobat. Click here
to download a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Web effort at the University of Pennsylvania is an association of research universities,
advocacy bodies, and other scholars interested in issues of language policy and planning. The
objectives of the Consortium are to enhance the quality of research, teaching, and
information dissemination on the subject of language policy formation and study; to
strengthen similarly-oriented programs of its member institutions, and to foster dialogue
on the process of language policy formation in situations of ethnic and linguistic conflict in
the modern world.
English First is a national, non-profit grassroots lobbying organization founded in 1986.
Their stated goals are simple, to make English America's official language, and to eliminate
costly and ineffective multilingual policies.
Utahns for Responsible Legislation (URL) created this web site to provide information about
the issues behind a bill that would have made English Utah's official language and (with
several exceptions) prohibited government workers or the state or its political subdivisions
from conducting government business or printing information in any language but English.
They believe the bill was an anti-minority and anti-immigrant initiative that offered no
benefit to the state or any Utah citizen or group of citizens.
Membership, advocacy and grant-funding organization based in the UK. The aims of the
Foundation are to raise awareness of endangered languages, both inside and outside the
communities where they are spoken, through all channels and media; to support the use of
endangered languages in all contexts: at home, in education, in the media, and in social,
cultural and economic life; to monitor linguistic policies and practices, and to seek to
influence the appropriate authorities where necessary;
This site collects links on the language futures of Europe - on language policy,
multilingualism, global language structures, and the dominance of English. It starts with a
comment on the structures of language: then texts/essays, and sections on EU policy,
national policies, and research sites. Finally there are links on the emerging "monolingual
movement" in the United States.
James Crawford, an independent writer and lecturer who specializes in the politics of
language has constructed a site designed to encourage discussion of language policy issues,
publish updates on current developments, report on pending legislation, and highlight links
to other sources of information. Topics covered include the English Only movement, English
Plus, bilingual education, efforts to save endangered languages, and language rights in the
U.S.A. The premiere site of its type on the web.
The Latino/a Research & Policy Center (LRPC) was founded on July 1, 1997 and is an
academic unit which serves as a resource to the University of Colorado at Denver's Latino/a
faculty, and other faculty, students, community and civic leaders interested in scholarly
research and public policy addressing the needs, interests and aspirations of Latino
populations and communities.
This UNESCO-sponsored site has information and links to UN and European declarations
relevant to linguistic rights, as well as clips from various national constitutions relating to
national language rights policies.
The Purpose of the Center is to collect and report statistics and information showing the
condition and progress of education in the United States and other nations in order to promote
and accelerate the improvement of American education. NCES studies cover the entire
educational spectrum, providing the facts and figures needed to help policymakers
understand the condition of education in the nation today, to give researchers a foundation of
data to build upon, and to help teachers and administrators decide on best practices for their
The National Policy Voice for Language. The member organizations of NCLIS-JNCL are
united in their belief that all Americans must have the opportunity to learn and use English
and at least one other language. Raising the awareness of policymakers about the importance
of international education, NCLIS now represents 60 national and regional organizations
encompassing virtually all areas of the language field; the major and less- commonly taught
languages, including English and English as a Second Language, bilingual education, the
classics, linguistics, exchanges, research, technology, international business education, and
Terralingua is an international, non-profit organization concerned about the future of the
world's biological, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Within this broad focus they have two
main aims: (1) supporting the perpetuation and continued development of the world's
linguistic diversity; and (2) exploring the connections between linguistic, cultural and
biological diversity, through a programme of research, information, applied work, and
Acting under the directive of the leadership of the 104th Congress to make Federal
legislative information freely available to the Internet public, a Library of Congress team
brought the THOMAS World Wide Web system online in January 1995. Databases made
available include Bill Text, Congressional Record Text, Bill Summary & Status, Congress
This Week, Major Legislation, the Congressional Record Index, and the Constitution (now
found, along with other historical Congressional documents, under the "Historical
Documents" category on the THOMAS home page). Enhancements in the types of legislative
data available, as well as in search and display capabilities, have been continuously added.
Promoting the well-being of the Latino population of the United States through the
improvement of the nation's policies and programs, The Tomas Rivera Center (TRC)
conducts rigorous, policy-relevant research, evaluates the effects of governmental and
corporate practices on Latinos, and serves as a nonpartisan source of information, analysis
and ideas for the policymaking communities.
Student financial aid materials, tips for parents, statistics & the latest findings on what
works in education are among the myriad of documents stored on the site, helping make it
one of the most widely used education resources on the Internet.
The major lobby for language restrictions, founded in 1983 by the late Sen. S. I. Hayakawa
and Dr. John Tanton; leaders of the modern English Only movement. The organization is
dedicated to preserving the "unifying role" of the English language in the United States. Its
efforts support making English the official language of government at all levels.
CMMR review of the results and ramifications of the passage of the
California referendum to eliminate bilingual education. Includes sampling of
news articles, commentaries, and current information resources that
discuss Proposition 227's pending enactment. (This section is no longer
updated, it is provided for historical reference)
"End bilingual education in California." That was the slogan of a ballot
intiative entitled English for the Children. It become a reality in June,
1998. This comprehensive link provides information on the initiative
provided by the Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research. Sampling
of news articles collected from newspapers, periodicals and other media
sources through election day that discuss the pros and cons of the California
anti-Bilingual Education Initiative. An assortment of links from various
organizations, and a mutlitmedia review of the controversial initiative.
(This section is no longer updated, it is provided for historical reference)
The ACLU opposes "English Only" laws because they can abridge the rights of individuals who
are not proficient in English, and because they perpetuate false stereotypes of immigrants
and non-English speakers. This briefing paper elobrates on these critical issues.
by Jim Cummins and Michael Genzuk. The U.S. Department of Education released the findings
of an eight-year study designed to provide definitive answers to one of the most volatile
questions in American Education: What types of programs work best in helping Hispanic
students succeed in school? The issue has revolved around the effectiveness of bilingual
education which involves using the child's primary language in addition to English as a
language of instruction. This article also available in Spanish.
By Jamie B. Draper and Martha Jiménez. Not since the beginning of this century has
language received as much attention in the United States. Like the language battles of the
early 1900s, those of the 1980s were rife with appeals to patriotism and unity casting
language minorities in the role of outsiders who deliberately "chose" not to learn the English
language. This article provides a chronological overview of these efforts.
by G. Vernez, R.A. Krop, C.P. Rydell. This Rand report asks: How much would it cost and what
would the benefits be if blacks and Hispanics graduated from high school, went to college, and
graduated from college at the same rate as non-Hispanic whites? The answer to this
important question for the future of the nation is explored in this report. The costs of
education would be high, increasing by about 20 percent in California and 10 percent in the
rest of the nation. But the benefits, in the form of savings in public health and welfare
expenditures and increased tax revenues from higher incomes, would be even higher. Indeed,
the added costs of providing more education to minorities would be recouped well within the
lifetime of taxpayers called upon to make the additional investments. The nation is
experiencing a rapid immigration driven increase in the share of Hispanics in the school age
population. Failure to increase the educational attainment of this group would result in
growing shares of new labor-force entrants having levels of education lower than those
prevailing today; in increased income disparities between blacks and Hispanics, on one hand,
and Asians and non-Hispanic whites, on the other; and in increased public expenditures for
social and health programs for generations to come.
NOTE: To read this article in PDF format you will need a PDF reader like Adobe
Acrobat. Click here to download a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.
by Benjamin Levin and J. Anthony Riffel. Increasing diversity in the population is a major
issue for educators in North America, presenting political as well as educational challenges.
This paper examines Canadian educational policy responses to four kinds of diversity -
bilingualism (French/English), multiculturalism, the situation of aboriginal peoples, and
the problem of poverty. A description of each issue leads to some speculations or
propositions on the nature of diversity and appropriate educational responses to it.
The National Education Association (NEA) article on: Reasons Against English Only; NEA
Resolutions; Language Inclusion History & English Only Legislation; Community
Recommendations; and English Only Resources.
NOTE: To read this article in PDF format you will need a PDF reader.
by Stephen Krashen. Critics of bilingual education have cited the high Hispanic dropout rate
as evidence against bilingual education. Since most bilingual programs are Spanish-English,
it is concluded that bilingual education must be responsible. This note reviews what is
known about dropout rates among Hispanic students.
M. Zavodny of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta research paper suggests that workers
with limited English skills may suffer adverse effects in the labor market when states
declare English the official language. If employers view official English laws as allowing or
requiring them to adopt workplace English-only rules that lower the demand for limited
English-proficient workers, such laws may harm individuals who do not speak English very
well. Using data from the 1980 and 1990 Census, she estimates whether the earnings and
other labor market outcomes of workers who have limited English proficiency and live in
states that adopted official English laws declined relative to other workers'. The results
suggest a substantial decline in the annual earnings of men with limited English proficiency.
The text of the decision can be read (with Adobe Acrobat) on the bank's web site.
NOTE: To read this article you will need a PDF reader like Adobe Acrobat. Click here
to download a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.
by S. L. Mckay and G. Weinstein-Shr. This article examines the relationship between U.S.
national policies on literacy, available literacy programs, and individual lives. Beginning
with a discussion of the expanding role of English literacy in U.S. immigration policies, this
article examines the pressures to become literate in English with consideration given to the
resources that are available to do so. Language use in immigrant families is discussed with a
focus on native language loss and the consequences of this loss for intergenerational
relationships. The article concludes with suggestions for an approach to literacy in which
the links between national policies and personal lives are made explicit.
by Kris Anstrom and Anneka Kindler. Issues related to the education of language minority
students need to be understood within the context of educational reform as exemplified in the
recent passage of three ground breaking pieces of legislation, the Goals 2000: Educate
America Act, the Improving America's Schools Act (IASA), and the School-to-Work
Opportunities Act. All three pieces of legislation require that new linkages be formed across
old programatic boundaries, between local educational agencies (LEAs), state education
agencies (SEAs), institutions of higher education (IHEs), and the federal government, and
between community-based organizations and the schools. Knowledge of the issues and
legislation on the part of those concerned with the education of language minority students
and their involvement in all levels of the reform effort will help determine whether
language minority students benefit from the reform movement. The purpose of this document
is to provide an overview of the issues and legislation pertinent to the attainment of
educational equity and excellence for language minority students.
by Clayton Collins of The Christian Science Monitor. This article suggests that language has
long been equated with cultural clout - the "perfect instrument of empire," as Spain's Queen
Isabella was said to have been told by an adviser. Today, the world's empires may be in
retreat but active movements to leverage language for power have surged worldwide. This
article provides a world wide perspective to language policy for political power.
by Dennis Sayers. How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further
intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in
computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual
activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the
principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant
What would be the legal impact of an English Language Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?
This excerpt from Language Loyalties: A Source Book On The Official English Controversy, by
James Crawford gives a detailed overview of the historical and legal precedents to explore
by Bernard Spolsky and Elana Shohamy. Article focusing on Israel's language policy
reporting Israel as highly multilingual, with a 20% Arabic-speaking minority and large
number of languages used by its enormous immigrant population, Hebrew is the dominant
language for official, public and private use of the 5,500,000 citizens. In spite of the
widespread official and ideological policy support for Hebrew, English has continued to
flourish and spread in all sectors of the Israeli population. Article reviews language
education policy and language education system.
by V. W. Lewelling. The issue of an official language has surfaced periodically throughout
U.S. history. On the surface, the idea appears to be a symbolic gesture-to give English, the
de facto language of the country, official status. However, proposals have also called for
prohibition of state laws, ordinances, orders, programs, and policies that require the use of
other languages. Concern over the implications such an amendment could have for U.S.
citizens and residents whose native language is other than English led to formation of an
English Plus language advocacy coalition of more than 50 civil rights and educational
organizations. This digest reviews these topics.
Article by Jorge Amselle which suggests that advocates of official English need to recapture
the focus of the debate over a common language. If they do not, the language issue will become
the hegemony of restrictionists and xenophobes, and will indeed become the divisive issue
that ethnic activists already claim it to be.
Two policies are highlighted, the Language In Education Policy, and the Norms And Standards
Regarding Language Policy Published In Terms Of The South African Schools Act, 1996.
While these two policies have different objectives, they complement each other and should at
all times be read together rather than separately. This Language-in-Education Policy
Document is seen as part of a continuous process by which policy for language in education is
being developed as part of a national language plan encompassing all sectors of society,
including the deaf community.
Keynote address to the Michigan Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages,
November 16, 1996.by James Crawford.
U.S. Supreme Court Opinions
Now you can search Supreme Court Opinions from the CMMR web site. FindLaw's
searchable database of the Supreme Court decisions since 1893 is provided
below. Cases are browsable by year and US Reports volume number and
searchable by citation, case title and full text.
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