| CENTER FOR MULTILINGUAL,
MULTICULTURAL RESEARCH |
NATIVE AMERICAN RESOURCES
- Sites and articles listed here are not necessarily endorsed by the CMMR;
they are listed for informational purposes only. An additional section on
Native American Language Resources is provided. Full text articles and
resources are also provided. If you would like to suggest a site to be added to
this listing please visit our "Submit a Site" page.
- Alaska Native Knowledge Network
- Designed to serve as a resource for compiling and exchanging information
related to Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing,
including a section on 'Native Pathways to Education'.
- The American Indian College Fund
- The American Indian College Fund is a non-profit organization launched in
1989 by the presidents of American Indian colleges. Its dual purpose is to
raise awareness of the 30 Indian colleges and to generate private support
to supplement the limited federal money on which the colleges operate.
- American Indian Education
- This section of the California Department of Education Web Site is
designed to assist educators in identifying the needs of American Indian
students and providing them with high-quality educational opportunities,
especially in schoolwide programs.
- American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC)
- Contact information and links for Native American Colleges and
- American Indian Sports Team Mascots
- A comprehensive information resource containing documents, data and
pointers concerning the American Indian sports team mascot (token)
- Bureau Of Indian Affairs - U.S. Department of the Interior
- The Bureau of Indian Affairs' mission is to enhance the quality of life, to
promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to
protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes
and Alaska Natives. The site contains the mission statement, strategic
plan, services and opportunites for the BOIA's population.
- Canku Ota (Many Paths)
- Canku Ota is a free, bi-weekly, online Newsletter celebrating Native
America, its traditions and accomplishments. Also includes many
wonderful items including a kids page, coloring book, biographical and
historical items from a Native American View.
- Cherokee National Historical Society
- A group of distinguished Cherokees founded the Cherokee National
Historical Society, a private non-profit corporation designed to preserve
the history and culture of the Cherokee people - past, present, and
future. Beyond this original mission, the Society is committed to
educating not only the Cherokee people, but the general public through
visual and performing arts, the written word, and the development of
uniquely Cherokee resources.
- Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma
- The Cheyenne and Arapaho of Oklahoma unite two of the most famous
tribes in the American west. This site provides a comprehensive view of
the the different aspects of the tribes culture, history, institutions,
interests, education, business, etc.
- An information-sharing network for, and about, Native Americans. It is
sponsored by all of the Federal agencies who operate Native American
programs. Its name is based on the Native American Code Talkers, heroes
of two world wars. CodeTalk is developed and administered by the Office of
Information Technology and the Office of Native American Programs of the
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Included is
government program information, an electronic consultations feature,
and links to other interesting Native American Internet information.
- CODE TALKER -- Carl Gorman -- one of the Navajo Code
Talkers of World War Two -- recently died of cancer, at the
age of 90. The Code Talkers played an instrumental role in
the U.S. efforts in the Pacific theatre of World War
Two...hear about what they did in this remembrance of
Gorman's role with the Code Talkers. Please be patient, may
take a few moments to load. (Requires free "RealAudio"
- To download the RealAudio Player consult RealAudio's
home page. For the free Player go to the download page.
- Comanche Nation
- Information about the Comanche tribe including history, govenment,
- This site from the University of Pennsylvania contains a wealth of
information on the Quechua language with additional information on
culture and literature.
- 4Directions: An Indigenous Model of Education
- 4Directions is a project administered by the Laguna Department of
Education which focuses on integrating Native American culture and
technology into education in a way that enables students to maintain and
learn their heritage while taking full advantage of their future. The
4Directions consortia is achieving this through: building on local
cultures and values; collaborating using Internet activities across sites
through on-site training, on-line tutoring, and cooperative teaming;
creating networked "virtual communities" with Internet
teleconferencing; encouraging life-long learning by extending Internet
access into surrounding communities; maintaining and extending a
network database of teaching, assessment, professional development, and
student created resources organized by Goals for American Indians,
Alaskan Natives and national standards; and creating a research based
- Haudenosaunee/Mohawk Language and Culture
- Resource Pages containing Mohawk language, Haudenosaunee language,
Haudenosaunee history books, Giant Iroquois Confederacy list of links,
- Hopi Villages
- An overview and discussion of the Hopi villages. Additional information on the Hopi may be found at the Hopi Cultural
Center web site.
- Index of Native American Resources
- A tremendously comprehensive hypertext index of Native American
resources, including art, education, history, government, cultural,
commercial, personal and employment sites.
- Indian Country Today Online
- Indian Country Today, a weekly newspaper that covers national news and
events, is currently distributed in all fifty states and in seventeen
foreign countries. Indian Country Today is America's largest Indian
- Indian Pueblo Cultural Center
- The Pueblo Indians of what is now New Mexico are settled in nineteen
communities, some of which have been continuously inhabited since long
before the discovery of America. Still retaining their ancient and largely
secret ceremonial life, they nevertheless welcome visitors from all over
the world, and offer a glimpse of the proud heritage which they have kept
alive for more than a thousand years.
- Indians of California
- The goal of this site is to offer information and resources that will help
in our understanding of the indigenous people of California. The site is
designed for everyone; however, it is especially focused on providing
materials for California's teachers and students.
- Institute for Native Americans
- The Institute for Native Americans at Northern Arizona University. The
purpose of the institute is to enhance the visibility and standing of
ongoing programs, both academic and service-oriented, that relate to
Native American tribes, their cultures, issues, and future prospects.
Secondly, it will serve as a catalyst and coordinating body for new
initiatives that relate to Native American tribes.
- Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe
- The Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe has evolved directly from several
constituent communities of the S'Klallam people. The S'Klallam Tribe,
whose name means the "Strong People," belong to a Salish cultural and
linguistic group related to British Columbia Tribes as well as to most
Tribes in the Puget Sound area. This site provides a fine overview of the
- Legislative Impact
- Legislative Impact is a consolidated legislative research resource for
Indian Country. Here you will find all you need to become active in the
advocacy of Native American issues at the Federal level. Legislative
Impact is a web site where individuals, tribes, consulting firms, and
lobbyists can learn what legislation is current and what action needs to
- A Line in the Sand
- This site proves a place where the debate over where to draw the "Line in
the Sand" on the issues of cultural property, Native American
sovereignty, Native American identity, ethnic stereotypes, the
commodification of Native American culture, and all related issues, can
- Maya/Aztec/Inca Center
- The Maya/Aztec/Inca Center of the Lords of the Earth is a Web site which
deals with the Archeology and Anthropology of the Americas.
- National Indian Education Association
- The mission of the National Indian Education Association is to support
traditional Native cultures and values, to enable Native learners to
become contributing members of their communities, to promote Native
control of educational institutions, and to improve educational
opportunities and resources for American Indians and Alaska Natives
throughout the United States.
- Native American Artists Home Page
- Native American fine art exhibit. Only Native American artists are
presented at this site. The variety and quality of their work speaks for
itself. This is a juried collection of works. The art work may be
downloaded and posted on other sites, if credit is given to the artist and a
link provided back to the artist's exhibit.
- The Native American History Archive
American History Archive Inquirer, a model for collaborative group projects
in History, offered as a starting point for teachers seeking authentic uses
of the World Wide Web in their classrooms.
- The Native American History Archive is designed for use by K-12
students using the Web for classroom projects, in the spirit of the
- Native American Indian
- Web resources for Indian teachers and students. A thoughtful and thorough
collection of educational resources, including stories, myths, art,
historical maps, native sciences, environmental issues, linguistic and
cultural information - - native sources.
- Native American Resource Guide
- From the University of Southern California libraries, includes major
sources of information including: books on images and stereotypes of
Native Americans, dictionaries and encyclopedias, biographical sources,
atlases, bibliographies and guides, cd-roms on Native Americans,
statistics, locating journal, magazine and newspaper articles,
directories, dissertations, videos, audio recordings, journal
subscriptions held by USC libraries, resource centers in Southern
California. Also includes special topics secton about Native Americans
including: art of Native Americans, literature of Native Americans,
Native Americans in politics and government, Native American religion
and mythology, artists' views of Native Americans, and interesting web
sites on Native Americans.
- Native American Schools, Student Groups and Related Programs on the
- Site contains teacher's resources on Native American K-12 schools,
Native American colleges and related programs Native American student
resources and related educational resources.
- Native American Sites
- Native American Sites on the WWW provides access to home pages of
individual Native Americans and Nations, and to other sites that provide
solid information about American Indians. A very comprehensive resource
- Native Americans at Princeton
- Native Americans at Princeton is a student organization/support group
for students comprised of Native Hawaiian, American Indian, and Native
Alaskan members. Currently, American Indians and Native Hawaiians
constitute 0.5 percent of the Princeton student body.
- NativeTech is an educational web site that covers topics of Native
American technology and emphasizes the Eastern Woodlands region. The
web site is organized into artistic categories and provides simple
instructional information about how some of these materials are used by
Natives. It also provides detailed background on the history and
development of these kinds of Native technologies, showing both the
change and continuity from pre-contact times to the present. NativeTech
is dedicated to disconnecting the term 'primitive' from peoples'
perceptions of Native American technology and art.
- Native Education Directory
- Organizations and resources for educators of Native Americans.
- The Navajo Nation
- These pages are devoted to the Navajo Nation, the largest Native American
tribe in the Southwest.
- Navajo Nation - Diné College
- Formerly Navajo Community College, the first tribally controlled
community college. Among its many academic offerings are courses in Navajo Language, and Navajo and Indian studies, and degree programs in Navajo Bilingual-Bicultural Education, Navajo Culture, Navajo History
and Indian Studies, Navajo Language.
- News from Native California
- This is a quarterly magazine devoted to California's indigenous people.
Feature articles range from ceremonial regalia and traditional use of
tobacco to environmental issues and California archaeology, all
emphasizing Native Californian points of view, historic and
contemporary. "Inside News," a literary supplement, features poetry,
short stories, plays, and literary non-fiction by California Indian
writers. Regular features address California Indian languages, the arts,
books, skills & technology, law, and more.
- Office of Indian Education Programs
- OIEP's intent is to provide the best education for all the American Indian
students and to provide national leadership in the field of Indian
- Ohwejagehka: Ha`degaenage
- This site has been established to preserve and nurture the Iroquoian
languages, songs and dances. Ohwejagehka: Ha`degaenage: is non-profit
organization based on the Six Nations of the Grand River community.
- Oneida Indian Nation
- The first American Indian nation in the United States to establish a World
Wide Web site. Located in the heart of New York State, this site proudly
shares its people, culture, history, and progress with you. The Oneida
Nation is perhaps one of the only Indian communities in the United States
to progress economically, and succeed commercially, while retaining
their traditional system of government and culture.
- Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribes
- The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribes' Reservation information web site. The
reservation is located thirty five miles northeast of Reno, Nevada.
Pyramid Lake is one of the most valuable assets of the Tribe and is
entirely enclosed within the boundaries of the Reservation. This site
provides a fine overview.
- Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre
- The Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre seeks to help maintain the
cultural identity of the five cultures of the province; the Saulteaux,
Dakota, Assiniboine, Dene and Cree (Plains, Woodland, and Swampy). The
fundamental aim of the centre is to encourage people to maintain a proud
and positive self-image and to develop methods of applying those
traditional values and skills to an ever changing and vibrant modern
- Seminole Tribe of Florida
- This site is dedicated to the rich history and culture of a great people. It
provides tribal history, information about tribal functions, backgrounds
and the entities that comprise the modern day Seminole Tribe of Florida.
- Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
- The Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma consists of fourteen individual bands or
groups, two of which are Freedmen bands (descendants of slaves who
found refuge and freedom with the tribe before the tribe's removal from
Florida). This site provides a comprehensive view ot the tribe.
- Seneca Nation of Indians
- The home page of The Seneca Nation Of Indians Cultural Resources
provides information on Current News, Education, Employment &
Economic Development, Genealogy Information, Government, Health
Services, Hot Links, Natural Resources, a Seneca Nation Treaties Page, an
individual information on the Seneca Reservations.
- Six Nations of the Grand River Reserve
- A site dedicated to the Six Nations. The people of the Six Nations, also
known by the French term Iroquois, call themselves the Hau de no sau nee
(ho dee noe sho nee) or People of the Longhouse. Located in the
northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five
and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. The
sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated into Iroquois country in the early
eighteenth century. Together these peoples comprise what is described as
the oldest living participatory democracy on earth.
- Society of Native American Culture - North Carolina State University
- The Society of Native American Culture was founded Fall 1994 at North
Carolina State University. The purpose of SNAC is to: (1) serve as an
information society for Native Americans and non-natives about Native
American culture, issues and concerns, through fieldtrips, film series,
lecturers, and other activities; (2) work in conjunction with the
American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) and the Native
American Student Association (NASA) at North Carolina State University,
to promote Native American culture, issues, and concerns; (3) enhance
the communication/interaction between Native Americans and non
natives, at North Carolina State University and in the community; and,
(4) KEEP THE NATIVE AMERICAN SPIRIT ALIVE!
- Southern Ute Tribe
- Site shares the Southern Ute culture, Southern Ute history, Southern Ute
enterprises, Southern Ute government, and additional links.
- Native American arts, humanities and culture to promote learning and
increase awareness of the Lakota people of South Dakota.
- The Taíno Inter-Tribal Council
- The Taíno Inter-Tribal Council, Inc., is an educational and cultural
institution of the Taíno Tribe of Jatibonicù and consists of Taíno peoples
from the Caribbean who reside in the United States.
- This Week In American Indian History
- Site provides over 3000 events which happened to or affected the
indigenous peoples of North America. A History Channel recommended
- Tlingit National Anthem:Alaska Natives Online
- Tlingit culture, history, current Alaska Native and American Indian
issues, Alaska tourist guide, Native American links resources.
- Tribal College Journal
- Journal of American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) is a
quarterly publication read by 16,000 American Indian educators, federal
and tribal leaders, students and others interested in Indian Issues. The
Journal addresses broad subjects relevant to education and the future of
Native communities, using both journalistic and scholarly articles. It
serves first the Tribal Colleges, second Native higher education in the
Western Hemisphere, third Indian Education, and fourth members of
- Tribal Communities In The Bristol Bay Region, Alaska
- Three of Alaska's major ethnic Native groups - Yup'ik Eskimos,
Athabascans, and Aleuts live in the Bristol Bay region of southwest
Alaska. This site provides information on this wonderful region and the
tribes that are located there.
- United Confederation of Taino People
- The United Confederation of Taino People (UCTP) is an international
indigenous organization made up of Taino Indian organizations, groups and
societies dedicated to the promotion, preservation and protection of the
cultural heritage and spiritual traditions of their aboriginal ancestors.
The Taino's are known as the descendants of the first Native Peoples of
the Americas to meet Christopher Columbus in 1492.
- LINKS TO NATIVE AMERICAN LANGUAGE RESOURCES
Cheyenne Language Web Site
- Blackfoot language resource that includes: Blackfoot audio sample,
Blackfoot phonetics, Blackfoot morphology, Blackfoot morphosyntax,
Blackfoot syntax, and a Blackfoot language bibliography.
- This site provides a comprehensive review of the Cheyenne language.
Cheyenne alphabet and pronunciation guides, Cheyenne words, policies of
cultural and language assimilation as well as an extensive index of related
links are provided to mention but a few of the sites offerings.
Comanche Language and Cultural Preservation Committee
- In July of 1993, the Comanche Language and Cultural Preservation
Committee was formed with the vision of reviving the Comanche language
into a "living language" once again. Most of the fluent speakers are
elderly, and they are not being replaced with new speakers as they pass
on. This site attempts to provide the opportunity for Comanche people of
all ages to be able to speak, write and understand the language in order
that it and their culture might live on.
- Mailing list for Cree related discussions. Education resources and
institutes, Cree syllabics (alphabet/letters), language lessons, stories
and poems, Wapahke - Tomorrow , readings and resources, announcements
and event listings.
Dakota Language Homepage
- Provides lessons and methodology in teaching the Dakota language as well
as pages of related interest.
Haudenosaunee Language Resource Homepage
- Haudenosaunee Languages Resources including: Mohawk language
resources, Oneida Language Resources, Onondaga language resources,
Cayuga language resources, Seneca language resources, and Tuscarora
Kanienkehaka Language Homepage
- Dedicated to preserving, enriching and promoting Kanienkehaka language
and culture. Includes: Kanienkehaka dictionary sources, Kanienkehaka
words, and Kanienkehaka language references.
- On this site from Sioux Heritage, you will discover Lakhota translation of
over 100 common American-English words and phrases. You can also link
to Lakhota Online, professionally recorded audio of native speaking
Learning Aids for North American Languages
- Catalog of dictionaries, descriptive grammars, learning materials,
bilingual narratives, tapes, etc. for over 75 Native American languages.
Less Commonly Taught Languages
- Index listing of less common languages and the colleges and universities
in North America where they are taught.
Native American Languages
- Information and links for Specific languages, preservation of specific
languages, language family and regional sites, general Native American
language sites, books, and endangered languages discussion.
Native Languages Page
Navajo Language Associate of Arts Degree
- Links to various pages of individual native languages - continually
The Navajo Language Resource Centre
- Offered by the Navajo Nation - Diné College The purpose of the AA in
Navajo Language is (1) to prepare students to enter teacher certification
programs and become (a) Navajo language teachers or (b) well-prepared
bilingual teachers. (2) Students can also proceed to work in
interpretation, anthropology, linguistics, and related fields.
- This web site is committed to providing a comprehensive resource guide
for anyone with an interest in studying or learning this beautiful and
Numu Tekwapuha Nomneekatu
Teaching Indigenous Languages
- The Comanche Language and Cultural Preservation Committee.
The Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas
- Comprehensive website from Northern Arizona University with full-text
resources and useful links to help continue the dialog on both stabalizing
and teaching indigenous langauges.
- International scholarly organization representing American Indian
linguistics. Membership is open to all those who are interested in the
scientific study of the languages of the native peoples of North, Central
and South America.
FULL TEXT ARTICLES AND RESOURCES
- by Mary Hermes. Located within the recent scholarship in Indian Education,
this brief annotated bibliography concentrates on the subject broadly
referred to as "culture and curriculum." If culture is understood as the
collective values, practices, and will of a people, then cultural practices in
Indian education can only be understood as acts of self-determination.
- by Jon Reyhner. This article looks from a historical perspective at what
impact the implementation of the American Indian Languages Act might have
on Indian education.
- by K. Swisher. This study is an exploratory effort to determine current
thinking about learning styles from the perspective of those groups closely
associated with American Indian students, i.e., teachers and administrators
of the schools attended by American Indian students. The study assumes that
there is a pervasive, but not clearly defined, understanding by practitioners
of learning styles relating to American Indian people. The purpose of this
study was to determine the extent of teacher knowledge about learning styles
and to determine the extent to which this knowledge is applied in classrooms
attended by American Indian students.
- by Roger Bordeaux. This Digest examines the use of standardized, nationally
normed testing in assessing the progress of American Indian and Alaska
Native (AI/AN) students. It describes studies that have shown the
inadequacies of these assessment methods as well as theories that attempted
to explain the poor test results of the AI/AN population. The Digest then
describes alternatives to standardized testing, particularly performance
based assessment, recommended by Native and non-Native educators and
- by Robin Butterfield. This Digest focuses on findings of the U.S. Department
of Education's Indian Nations At Risk (INAR) Task Force (1991) and the
White House Conference on Indian Education (1992) related to Native
students who attend public schools. Task Force and Conference findings-
produced in early 1991 and 1992, respectively--suggest systemic reforms
that would (a) foster intercultural harmony in schools, (b) improve teacher
preparation, (c) develop instructional curricula and strategies that support
diverse cultural needs and learning styles, (d) include AI/AN parents in the
educational process, and (e) adopt a new paradigm for evaluation of AI/AN
student progress and success.
- by William Demmert. This Digest connects personal experience to that of
other Native peoples and to the findings of two national studies. The Digest
concludes with a summary of steps that must be taken at the local and federal
levels, as recommended in the studies.
- This Digest provides brief descriptions of key federal legislation and
initiatives calling for school reform. Each description is followed by a
series of questions that can help American Indian and Alaska Native
communities closely examine local school reform plans.
- by Deirdre A. Almeida. This Digest describes current inadequacies in
teaching about Native Americans, even when teachers are making an effort to
portray American Indians and Alaska Natives respectfully, and suggests ways
to avoid common pitfalls. The Digest provides guidelines for detecting anti
Indian bias in the curriculum and offers a brief list of Native American
controlled publications and resources.
- by E. Franklin & J. Thompson. This article describes the collected written
and visual works of one Dakota child, Monica, and three themes:
relationships, cultural commitment, and romance visible in her works.
Through a descriptive study of her works, Monica's teachers were able to
understand her particular meaning-making efforts, the way in which
various genres (e.g., personal narratives, realistic and romance fictional
narratives, cards and letters, written and visual responses to books)
supported her exploration and expression of meaning, and the struggles and
tensions inherent in her creative process.
- by Richard St. Germaine. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students
regularly face obstacles that can impede their progress in school.
Educational theorists and researchers have provided various explanations
for this high failure rate, each with its own set of prescriptions. Recently,
much attention has focused on cultural discontinuity. This Digest suggests
that addressing cultural obstacles is an important but incomplete approach
to increasing AI/AN students' success.
- by James Crawford. The threat to linguistic resources is now recognized as
a worldwide crisis. As many as half of the estimated 6,000 languages spoken
on earth are spoken only by adults who no longer teach them to the next
generation. An additional 40 percent may soon be threatened because the
number of children learning them is declining measurably. In other words,
90 percent of existing languages today are likely to die or become seriously
embattled within the next century. In formulating a response to this crisis,
there are three questions that need to be explored: (1) What causes language
decline and extinction? (2) Can the process be reversed? And (3) why
should we concern ourselves with this problem? This articlel looks in detail
at the situation of Native American languages in the United States.
- by Roland G. Tharp and Lois A.Yamauchi. Instructional conversation (IC) is a
dialog between teacher and learner in which prior knowledge and experiences
are woven together with new material to build higher understanding. IC
contrasts with the "recitation script" of traditional western schooling,
which is highly routinized and dominated by the teacher. IC varies in form in
different cultures, as do other discourse forms. Analysis of the research on
the formal and informal learning of American Indians lends insight into
possible ways in which instructional conversations in classrooms with these
children can be modified to promote learning. Effective instructional
conversations for Native Americans are influenced by four basic
psychocultural factors identified by Tharp (1989): a) sociolinguistics; b)
motivation; c) cognition; and d) social organization. These factors are
implicated in activity settings that are more likely to produce effective ICs
in Native American classrooms. "Ideal" activity settings--those most likely
to produce and maintain ICs for Native American students are proposed and
illustrated in this article.
- edited by Jon Reyhner. Effective Language Education Practices and Native
Language Survival is the proceedings of the Ninth Annual International
Native American Language Issues (NALI) Institute co-sponsored by the NALI
Board of Executors and the Montana Association for Bilingual Education and
held in Billings, Montana, June 8 & 9, 1989.
- by Ronald Tharp and Lois Yamauchi. Research indicates that the
instructional conversation (IC) can be an effective method for raising the
low academic achievement levels of various groups of Native American
students. The IC is a dialog between teacher and learner in which prior
knowledge and experiences are woven together with new material to build
higher understanding. A description of factors and their role in
implementing ICs among Native American populations is discussed.
- By Joshua Fishman. This paper is adapted from the speech given by Dr.
Fishman at the Second Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium on May
- by John M. Dodd, J. Ron Nelson, William Spint. Because of the diversity
among American Indian peoples, numerous tests and extensive research are
required to develop tests for the many American Indian tribal groups. Since
selling tests in sufficient numbers to make a profit is the goal for
publishers, it is reasonable to assume that there will not be suitable
psychometric tests available for all American Indian groups in the near
future. When the dubious benefit for having such tests available is
considered, perhaps their development should be discouraged. However,
prevention of inappropriate testing is essential. One way to accomplish this
is through culturally sensitive prereferral intervention.
- by Marjane Ambler. Efforts to fundamentally change American Indian
education have been few. Many universities and colleges include cultural
content, calling it Native American Studies, ethnic studies, or comparative
cultures. However, Native American Studies courses at most colleges and
universities must be generic since they attract students from many tribes.
This article highlights many of the obstacles faced by these students and
provides suggested models for overcoming barriers.
- Gina Cantoni, Editor. A Center for Excellence in Education Monograph at
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff that looks at the stabilizing of
indigenous languages. This is a special issue of Northern Arizona
University's Center for Excellence in Education monograph series,
Perspectives. A blueprint to revitalize American Indian and Alaska Native
- by Jon Reyhner. Teaching Indigenous Languages contains a selection of papers
presented at the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium
"Sharing Effective Language Renewal Practices" held at Northern Arizona
University (NAU) on May 1, 2, and 3, 1997. This conference brought
together nearly three hundred indigenous language experts, teachers, and
community activists to share information on how indigenous languages can
best be taught at home and at school.
- by Jon Reyhner. Contains over 40 full text papers on preserving,
promoting, and teaching indigenous languages plus some 50 full text columns
on American Indian/Alaska Native education from the newsletter of the
National Association for Bilingual Education. Well worth the visit.
- By Joshua Fishman. Attitudes toward language-loss depend on your
perspective. When a language is lost, you might look at that from the
perspective of the individual. Many individuals suppressed their language
and paid the price for it in one way or another. You can also speak from the
point of view of the culture lost. The culture has lost its language. What is
lost when the culture is so dislocated that it loses the language which is
traditionally associated with it? That is a serious issue for Native
Americans. We can ask it from the national point of view. What is lost by the
country when the country loses its languages? This article focuses on
language loss from only one of these perspectives, the perspective of the
culture. Because losing your language is, technically, an issue in the
relationship between language and culture. What is the relationship between
language and culture?
- by Linda C. Medearis. A descriptive review of a two-year research project
with the children and families of the Oklahoma Seminole Nation Head Start.